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      Methods to produce hydrogen without the use of fossil fuels involve the process of water splitting, or splitting the water molecule (H2O) into its components oxygen and hydrogen. So called as green hydrogen. When the source of energy for water splitting is renewable or low-carbon, the hydrogen produced is sometimes referred to as green hydrogen. The conversion can be accomplished in several ways, but all methods are currently considered more expensive than fossil-fuel based production methods.

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      • Electrolysis consists of using electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Electrolysis of water is 70–80% efficient (a 20–30% conversion loss) while steam reforming of natural gas has a thermal efficiency between 70 and 85%. The electrical efficiency of electrolysis is expected to reach 82–86% before 2030, while also maintaining durability as progress in this area continues apace.

        Water electrolysis can operate between 50–80 °C (122–176 °F), while steam methane reforming requires temperatures between 700–1,100 °C (1,292–2,012 °F). The difference between the two methods is the primary energy used; either electricity (for electrolysis) or natural gas (for steam methane reforming). Due to their use of water, a readily available resource, electrolysis and similar water-splitting methods have attracted the interest of the scientific community. With the objective of reducing the cost of hydrogen production, renewable sources of energy have been targeted to allow electrolysis.

        There are three main types of electrolytic cells, solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOECs), polymer electrolyte membrane cells (PEM) and alkaline electrolysis cells (AECs). Traditionally, alkaline electrolysers are cheaper in terms of investment (they generally use nickel catalysts), but less-efficient; PEM electrolysers, conversely, are more expensive (they generally use expensive platinum group metal catalysts) but are more efficient and can operate at higher current densities, and can therefore be possibly cheaper if the hydrogen production is large enough.

      • SOECs operate at high temperatures, typically around 800 °C (1,470 °F). At these high temperatures, a significant amount of the energy required can be provided as thermal energy (heat), and as such is termed high-temperature electrolysis. The heat energy can be provided from a number of different sources, including waste industrial heat, nuclear power stations or concentrated solar thermal plants. This has the potential to reduce the overall cost of the hydrogen produced by reducing the amount of electrical energy required for electrolysis

        PEM electrolysis cells typically operate below 100 °C (212 °F). These cells have the advantage of being comparatively simple and can be designed to accept widely varying voltage inputs, which makes them ideal for use with renewable sources of energy such as photovoltaic solar panels. AECs optimally operate at high concentrations of electrolyte (KOH or potassium carbonate) and at high temperatures, often near 200 °C (392 °F)

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