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      The spring cone crusher design is able to pass uncrushable materials e.g. tramp metal, through the crushing cavity by using springs. The first hydraulic cone crusher was developed in 1948 and this allowed for the opening of the crushing cavity hydraulically, instead of using springs (mechanical actuation). Both the spring and hydraulic cone crusher designs are still in use today.

      Cone crushers are capable of crushing all types of medium to hard mineral rocks and stones. It also offers many advantages over other crusher designs, such as low energy consumption, reliability, high efficiency (compared to other crushers), and a high reduction ratio (feed/input size compared to product/output size).

      Despite being present in many industries, it is most commonly used in the construction and mining industries. Cone crushers are generally found in use for secondary, tertiary, and downstream crushing services, with jaw crushers and gyratory crushers used for primary crushing operations.

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      • The main components of a cone crusher include the main shaft, mantle, concaves cone, eccentric bushing, drive, crown gear, frame, and tramp release mechanism (mechanically or hydraulically actuated).

        Top Shell & Spider Cap Assembly

        The feed is fed by conveyors to a feed bin above the vertically mounted cone crusher. Feed enters the crusher via an opening in the upper shell. Depending upon the cone crusher design, a distribution plate may be used to distribute the feed evenly as it enters the crusher. A spider cap (if fitted) houses the upper bearing of the main shaft; the shaft is lubricated with grease or oil depending upon the design.

        Main Shaft

        The main shaft is normally manufactured from high grade forged steel (annealed for stress relief). The upper part of the shaft is supported by a self-aligning bearing in the spider cap (if fitted). The self-aligning bearing is designed to cater for the movement generated by the oscillating shaft; this oscillating movement is caused by the lower eccentric drive arrangement. The journal of the spider bearing is shrunk onto the top of the main shaft.

        Step Bearing

        The bottom of the main shaft is supported by a three-piece step bearing arrangement that oscillates with the main shaft. The step bearing supports the weight of the shaft.

        Mantle & Concaves

        The mantle is installed over the head/cone, which is mounted onto main shaft. The mantle forms part of the replaceable wear surfaces and it oscillates with the moving shaft (moving wear surface). Mantles are typically manufactured from manganese steel alloy.

        A concave ring (bowl liner) is housed within the upper casing; it forms the stationary wear surface.

        Eccentric Drive & Bushing

        Eccentric motion is achieved by the lower eccentric bushing and drive arrangement located at the bottom of the main shaft. This arrangement is similar in design and principal to that used by gyratory crushers. The eccentric bushing is manufactured from high carbon steel fitted with a bronze inner wear sleeve. It is possible to adjust the eccentric throw by installing different sized sleeves. The ‘throw’ defines the range of movement of the shaft and consequently the distance between the mantle and bowl liner at any given point, this is particularly relevant at the choke point (the place where the mantle’s diameter is largest and where the mantle comes physically closest to the stationary wear surfaces).

        Pinion Gear & Countershaft Assembly

        An alloy steel pinion gear is mounted onto a pinion drive shaft. The pinion drive shaft is supported by pinion shaft bearings fed from a common lubrication system. An external motor pulley arrangement provides motive power to the pinion shaft, which in turn rotates the main shaft via this pinion and crown gear arrangement.

        Bottom Shell

        An annealed cast steel bottom shell houses the drive arrangement and eccentric drive components. Discharged material from the crusher passes through the bottom shell.


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